We have a long history of immigration to this world. Not only human beings, but all the animals of the world have moved from one place to another to live in a favorable environment for food, shelter, and comfort. If you don’t like it, there or if you run out of need or if you find a better place, that’s all you can do. This has been going on since the beginning of the animal life of that fauna. Because man is relatively sensitive, intelligent, and conscious, he too has moved from one place to another in evolution.
This is probably the eternal feature of the living world. There is no reason for people to be an exception at all. Other animals have moved from one place to another in search of food and security. But people have not only resorted to food, shelter, happiness, well-being, etc., but they have also formed society through the creation of wealth.
Advanced society has used and changed nature for human welfare through the practice of knowledge to further improve the system. From the very simple to the simple way of life, the way people are constantly changing people’s lives, the way the economy, society, state and international relations are being built, is at the root of the huge role of human migration process. There is an opportunity to know more about this in history. The ideas that history has been presenting to the people from the beginning of migration until now will give us an opportunity to think. It is a wonderful experience how the advanced thinking people of the present modern world are doing it from the level of that primitive human species at once. We can say without hesitation that the history of immigration in the world is very long.
Looking back at the experience of the history of human migration.
The first episode in the history of human migration
Human history is quite long. However, the journey of the thinker Homo sapiens began about 230,000 years ago. That time is a new episode in the history of primitive human society. There were over 7 million years ago when species after species, which are also the ancestors of our ancestors, were not as intelligent as we are. But they also had many features of the living world. They also had to eat herbs, fruits, etc. They had to live in caves of big trees or caves in the mountains. Originally, the history of immigration started from then. They also had to run from one place to another to collect food.
The natural law of reproduction also applied to them. Anthropology has named them as Ape species. It stretched from Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania in East Africa to South Africa. Here, too, they fled from East Africa to South Africa in search of food, shelter, and security to survive.
About 4 million years ago, a relatively large, slightly more advanced brain species began its journey in East Africa. They are called Australopithecus or southern humans. They have similarly moved to the south and east of the African continent in search of food and shelter. About 2 million years after their arrival in Africa, these former men reshaped parts of the Middle East. Towards the end, anthropologists and historians believe that they have practiced physical labor, some feeling, and intellect.
However, a new species of males born in East Africa with a better physical and mental constitution than these is called Homo Habilis, which means capable people. Who was able to stand upright? They started giving labor. It acquaints them with stones, with stones they make various tools that they used for hunting animals, birds, etc. The Stone Age began about 2.5 million years ago. A kind of social bond is seen between them. Which takes them from one place to another in groups. Such was the Stone Age history of immigration.
Erectus (an active human species) originated in East Africa around 2 million BC. Although many of its subspecies originated in Africa, they soon entered the continent of Eurasia in search of food and shelter. They migrate too many parts of Europe. Their settlement is also increasing in Asia. We know of Java people who currently live in Indonesia. They also came from faraway Africa.
It is said that the evolution of Java humans began around 16 to 14 million BC years ago. On the other hand, we also know about Peking humans. Anthropologists believe that Java and Peking humans are ethnically one. Then it means that they have also moved from one place to another. About 600,000 years ago, another species of man entered the Sahara from East Africa and entered Europe through the Mediterranean coast. They are called Heidelberg humans. They have settled as far as central Europe. Like the Heidelberg man, another species was widespread in the German mainland of Europe. They are called Neanderthal humans. These are our direct ancestors. They were much more advanced in intelligence than the previous human species. The use of fire as one of their achievements 4 lakh years ago has become memorable. They have spread all over Europe.
The Homo sapiens, a thinking human species, were born 230,000 years ago in the Ethiopian region of Tanzania in East Africa. They are much more intelligent than the previous human species, so they enter Eurasia in search of food, shelter, ideas of happiness, and so on. Homo sapiens from Eurasia quickly spread from one place to another. Thus began the history of immigration of the Homo sapiens. Experts believe that Neanderthals could not cope with Homo sapiens. Although Neanderthals were physically larger than Homo sapiens. But the Neanderthals once came and were forced to leave their place for fear of Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens advanced themselves into the revolutionary phase of intellectual thought. They scatter around themselves with much, more innovative power. They also fought with the Neanderthals. The Neanderthals were defeated. Forced to leave the place. After Homo sapiens spread throughout Europe.
Ancient and medieval history of immigration
Around 4,000 BC, human migration became more stable. Agriculture plays a huge role in this. During this time, the agrarian economy in different regions connected people to the trend of permanent residence. From there, when the ancient civilization turned its attention to the smaller civilizations and the larger civilizations, the larger civilizations began to control the city-state. It was there that each region, each civilization, sought to keep several peoples in the socio-economic and political system of life. There has been coercion, slavery has been created, and dictatorship has tried to consolidate that system, that state system of classism has deprived people of their freedom. The labor of poor people has forced them to build state institutions like farming, houses, roads, etc. In the new system thus created, human migration could not be built as independently as before. However, this ancient city-state or civilization was not created everywhere. Where it did not, there were attempts to expand the state. Many have fled. Again, many have been captured by the attackers.
Even then, people in the free zone are looking for food or a place to live. This is how the history of immigration in ancient times began. People have been where they have been for some time. There were, of course, some wonderful experiences before and after the fall of the Roman Empire. The empire that stretched from England to the western part of Europe, to the northern part of the Middle East African continent, was attacked by one nomadic tribe after another. These people in the north were stateless, uncivilized. They have never seen the state; never seen the palace. They defeated the then most powerful empire in the world, the Roman Empire. It freed many slaves after the fall of the Roman Empire.
They migrated to Europe and the Middle East. This is an interesting part of the history of immigration. Despite the emergence of some weak societies and states in these regions, the livelihood of the people remained at the peak of that inequality. From there again the people of some regions have sought refuge like nomads, found somewhere, found nowhere.
The history of immigration in the colonial era
In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, several European powers undertook expeditions in search of other lands by sea. Through this many entered the continent of Asia and Africa from Europe in the name of trade. Through this many entered the continent of Asia and Africa from Europe in the name of trade. In 1492, Columbus set out to explore the Caribbean Islands in the name of going to the Old World to fulfill the wishes of the King and Queen of Caribbean Spain. Here they soon sent one expedition after another to establish a colony. Spain and Portugal occupy the territory of South America. The colony was established. Groups of people from Europe crossed the Atlantic and entered Latin America. The British also occupied the American territory by that time.
Europeans migrate to both continents. They also took black people from Africa. There, the migration of African people did not happen voluntarily, it happened by force. Europeans and Africans have migrated through such contrasts throughout the Americas. Where the lives of the primitive Red Indians have shrunk. Lost their primitive identity and language-culture. This is a tragic chapter in the history of immigration. Similarly, Europeans entered and occupied Australia one by one.
There was a new migration of Europeans. Indigenous peoples of Australia are on the verge of extinction. This new immigration is purely in the interest of colonialism. That’s why European domination happened there. However, its economic and political impact has been different. But the Renaissance, the Industrial Revolution, the geographical discoveries of the last three centuries in Europe, the Enlightenment of the 18th century, the political institutions, the revolutions and the constitutional changes that have had little effect on the colonies, brought about economic changes, spread new outlooks on life. As a result, the new message that the positive impact has given to the whole world is the modern state and an improved way of life.
Immigration in the modern era
European colonists have been able to permanently immigrate Europeans by establishing their colonies on 3 continents. Two of them are North and South America and the third is Australia. This is exactly the opposite of the previous trend of immigration. Europeans did not lack space. There was no food crisis. But even then they left the developed state and way of life and went to work in a completely undeveloped unfamiliar territory to do business, missionary duties, government duties, etc. Many of them remained permanently. But many in Europe, despite being a relatively developed place, do not think of having a permanent presence in any country in Asia.
However, many of them also performed government duties, business, missionary duties, etc. here. But after the breakup of the colony, almost all of them returned to Europe. Many returned from North and South America and Australia. Those three continents are now full of caste diversity, though. Even then, most of the people there are of European descent by inheritance. The situation began to take a new turn when the aspirations for independence and statehood began in the United States and Latin America against the colonial rule. The breakdown of the colonial system continues to be indicated. Its impact was felt in Asia and Africa in the 20th century.
After the Second World War, independent states emerged on these two continents. As a result, the end of colonialism from the world took place almost completely. Then came the end of the history of immigration in the European colonial era. As a result, the trend towards the emergence of an independent state changes the previously unimpeded state of migration around the world. People cannot go from one country to another if they want to. The concept of geographical boundaries, passports, foreign-domestic, etc. became a matter of law and order in the state system. As a result, it slows immigration down by much stricter regulations during this period. The question of citizenship becomes important when people from one country of the world move to another country. It is becoming as difficult as it was 4/5 decades ago. Especially in the continents of Europe, North America and Australia.
In fact, man has not been confined to the place where he was born since the beginning of history. He has spread all over the world. He has never touched any soil of the world. Everywhere the touch of the human hand and the thinking power of the brain has changed. People have invented employment. Technology and more advanced technology that is dragging people from one place to another. Now the question is, where will the next immigration?
It is very certain that the history of immigration will be richer. The world has now entered the fourth generation of the science industrial revolution. In this age of automated technology; the question is where the world will go, what people will do. The search for a path is also going on, some scientists are predicting people to find a new planet. People have already taken steps to go to the moon. Now promises to go farther to Mars. In fact, it is a continuation of a successful experience of concentrating the human eye on continuous intellectual pursuits in search of the unknown world.
The negative impact that human immigration and migration have had on nature has also raised concerns about the future of humans on the planet. Since ancient times, when people have entered unknown places, many animals and plants have been used to save human lives because of hunting and living there. Again, many animals have become extinct at the touch of human beings, human beings have survived by hunting gigantic animals. We are now talking about climate change because its ecological response is inherent in nature.
Scientists fear that some parts of the world will sink in the very near future. Again, many areas will turn into deserts. In this way, we have created the possibility of human extinction on this planet. It is in this context that scientists are looking for unfamiliar terrain, planets, and satellites for human habitation. People have never been in one place, are not yet, will not be. It is a human genetic trait. Thus migration is one of the innumerable other genetic traits in human history.
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