The idea of building a communist society is based on the features of socialism and communism. There are many similarities between these two tiers as they are also two tiers of the same system. There are several differences between these two tiers, and these differences are the manifestation of the lowest and highest stages of the development of communist society. To reach the new communist stage of social relations after the fall of capitalism, the first stage has to be surpassed by socialism. To reach a communist society, one has to go through a long and complicated process of completing socialist relations. In other words, the completion of socialism is the gradual progress towards communism.
According to the Marxist view, the period of transition from the process of exploitation in the capitalist system through private ownership in the system of production to a classless communist society is called the socialist stage. On the other hand, communism is also the highest stage of the formation of a communist society, a classless social condition formed based on a single universal ownership of the means of production. In this society complete social equality of all members will be established.
The only scientific difference between a socialist society and a communist society is that the first word refers to the first phase of the new society that grew out of capitalist society, the second term refers to its higher phase. That is to say, the principle of according to one’s ability, according to one’s labor, will be replaced by the principle of according to one’s ability, according to one’s needs. It must be remembered that every new social structure is a more advanced stage of social development than its predecessor.
Under the capitalist system, society and all capitalist states are governed by a few rich people. In capitalism, the master class is constantly exploiting the working class in the industry, agriculture, transport, and other sectors and making unlimited profits. They have created the state, the army, the law, the courts, the prisons, the armed elite groups, and the police to keep the process of looting their facilities, positions, and profits straight.
Under communism, society will be the real owner of the overall production system of the whole society, everything will be produced in the environment of peace and harmony of the society. However, the intermediate two levels between these two must be crossed by human society to reach communism in the interest of development.
V. E. Lenin wrote in his book The State and Revolution,
“The meaning of Marx’s doctrine of the state is mastered only by those who understand that the dictatorship of a class is necessary only for all class societies in general, not only for the bourgeois overthrowing proletariat but for the whole historical mountain between capitalism and ‘classless society’ communism. It is needed. The forms of the bourgeois state are extraordinarily diverse, but their essence is the same: all these states are in one way or another, and inevitably bourgeois dictatorship in the last judgment. The transition from capitalism to communism is certainly not without its vast abundance and diversity of political forms, but their essence will inevitably remain the same: proletarian dictatorship.”
In socialism, the state exists even though there is no exploitation. The state is not a tool of exploitation, but the state is a tool to suppress the exploiting class by establishing a proletarian dictatorship. In a communist society, the state will not exist in the conventional sense, there will be no fear of action and no existence of national boundaries. Although the anarchist zealots think we will oust capitalism and the state like magic overnight. But the reality is that the state will not end with revolutions in a couple of countries while maintaining imperialism. The state can only die if it establishes the dictatorship of the revolutionary proletariat and overthrows imperialism through interim political activities in need of reciprocity.
V. E. Lenin wrote in his book The State and Revolution,
The difference between Marxists and anarchists is that:
(a) The first acknowledges the goal of the complete abolition of the state, but acknowledges that that goal can be achieved only after the class-abolition by the socialist revolution, as a result of the establishment of socialism leading to the state drying up; The latter want the complete abolition of the state overnight, not understanding the conditions for such an abolition to take effect.
(b) the former acknowledges that after the conquest of political power by the proletariat, the former state apparatus must be completely dismantled and replaced by an organization of armed workers in the form of the Paris Commune; Although the latter support the destruction of the state apparatus, their idea of what the proletariat will replace it and how it will use the revolutionary power is quite vague; Anarchists even object to the use of state power by the revolutionary proletariat, its revolutionary dictatorship.
(c) the former demanded that the proletariat be prepared for revolution by using the modern state; Anarchists oppose him.
There will be a state in the socialist period or the transition period, but that state will not have other exploiting classes including the bourgeoisie. If exploitation and imperialism are overthrown through the dictatorship of the proletariat all over the world, the state will automatically dry up and die.
The proletarian dictatorship, that is, the organization of the vanguard of the oppressed as the ruling class for the suppression of the oppressors, will not only promote democracy. With the proliferation of democracy, this is the first time that democracy is becoming not for the rich, but the poor, for the people, while the proletarian dictatorship imposes a set of restrictions on the freedom of oppressors, exploiters, and capitalists. To liberate mankind from wage-slavery, they must be suppressed, their resistance must be crushed by force. It is clear that where there is oppression, there is force, there is no freedom, there is no democracy.
For the sake of abundance and freedom and to enter the communist society of happiness, we have to convey the material things of communism to all in sufficient quantity. As long as we do not make technological and engineering advances, we will not be able to make a complete transition from capitalism to communism, free from rapid poverty alleviation and leaps and bounds.
“Socialism is the abolition of class. To abolish the class, first of all we need to oust the capitalists. For the abolition of class, secondly, the abolition of the distinction between worker and peasant, the need to make everyone work harder. That cannot be done immediately. This is an incomparably more difficult and inevitably long-term duty. It is not possible to solve this duty by evicting any one class. Its solution is possible only through the organizational reconstruction of all social economies, from the transition from a single, isolated, small commodity economy to a social large-scale economy. ”
The primary task to eradicate exploitation, domination, oppression, and aggression from the whole world is to seize political power through the majority working class of society, which in Marxist terms is called the dictatorship of the proletariat and is the opposite of the dictatorship of the master class. Whenever the working class assumes control of the system of production after the seizure of political power and operates in a participatory manner in the interests of all, rather than in the interests of a few affluent classes; Only then will society be able to give more by meeting the basic needs of all people very quickly. Society will eradicate all forms of unemployment.
The welfare of the people, the all-round development of the people, the flourishing of all latent human talents, the implementation of human creativity, the continuous improvement of the productive forces will be for the existence and development of the communist society itself. In socialism, there will be a state but that state will be free from exploitation and the workers will be free from all oppression.
Friedrich Engels, in his interpretation of the socialist “state”, says:
“It will be a society that truly represents the majority, the word will lose its connotation, the state will disappear into society. The capitalist state represents very few people in society. And that is why they resort to ruthless methods to maintain dominance over most people. But once the rule of the majority begins in the interest of all, the police and the army will soon disappear, and at the same time, the ongoing exploitation and oppression in a capitalist society will gradually disappear. Apart from this, there will be no use of force in the capitalist society, the entire social system will be run in a democratic and participatory manner for the benefit of all. ”
In a dictatorial society of the proletariat, the people will have full democracy. Besides, in all societies before the advent of socialism, there was freedom for the exploiters and democracy for them. The democracy that will be under socialism is the only democracy that will throw exploitation into the museum.
In a capitalist society, we find a torn, torn, forged democracy, which is only for the rich, for the minority. The proletarian dictatorship will give the first step to the transition to communism, along with the necessary repression of the minorities over the exploiters, as well as democracy for the people, for the most part. Only communism can give a truly full democracy, and the more complete that democracy is, the sooner it will become useless, dry out on its own.
In other words: in capitalism, we find in the true sense a state, a special instrument for the suppression of the majority by one class to another, and also by the minority. It is understood that for something like the regular repression of the majority to be exploited by the minority exploiters to be successful, the ultimate violence and brutality of repression are needed, a sea of blood is needed, where mankind has to languish in slavery, land slavery, wage slavery.
Then, during the transition from capitalism to communism, repression is still needed, but it is the suppression of the few exploiters by the most exploited.
In the end, In order to establish a socialist society, the lines of distinction between socialism and communism must be analyzed from a Leninist point of view. Marxism is the only way to liberate mankind on the path of Leninism by summarizing all the struggles of the past.
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